Let us continue our exploration of basic calculus and its application. As you will discover, the invention of calculus is a triumph of the human intellect, it is a fountain head of many ideas in pure mathematics as well as mine of applications to sciences and engineering and even economics and humanities!

**Hanging cables**

Imagine a cable, like a telephone line or TV cable, strung from one support to another and hanging freely. The cable’s weight per unit length is w and horizontal tension at its lowest part is a vector of length H. If we choose a coordinate system for the plane of the cable in which the x-axis is horizontal, the force of gravity is straight down, the positive y-axis points straight up, and the lowest point of the cable lies at the point on the y-axis. (Fig 1), then it can be shown that the cable lies along the graph of the hyperbolic cosine

.

Such a curve is sometimes called a **chain curve or a catenary, **the latter deriving from the Latin *catena *meaning ‘chain’.

a) Let denote an arbitrary point on the cable. Fig 2 displays the tension at P as a vector of length (magnitude) T, as well as the tension at H at the lowest point A. Show that the cable’s slope at P is

b) Using the result from part (a) and the fact that the tension at P must equal H (the cable is not moving or swinging), show that . This means that the magnitude of the tension at is exactly equal to the weight of y units of cable.

2) (*Continuation of above problem). *The length of arc AP in Fig 2 is

where . Show that the coordinates of P may be expressed in terms of s as

and .

3) *The sag and horizontal tension in a cable. *The ends of a cable 32 feet long and weighing 2 pounds per foot are fastened at the same level in posts 30 feet apart.

i) Model the cable with the equation

for

Use information from problem 2 above to show that a satisfies the equation

ii) Estimate the horizontal tension in the cable at the cable’s lowest point.

I hope you enjoy a lot 🙂

More later…

Nalin Pithwa