## Category Archives: KVPY

### Binomial Theorem Tutorial problems I: IITJEE mains practice

I. Expand up to 5 terms the following expressions:

1. $(1+x)^{\frac{1}{2}}$
2. $(1+x)^{\frac{7}{2}}$
3. $(1-x)^{\frac{2}{5}}$
4. $(1+x^{2})^{-2}$
5. $(1-3x)^{\frac{1}{3}}$
6. $(1-3x)^{\frac{-1}{2}}$
7. $(1+2x)^{-\frac{1}{2}}$
8. $(1+\frac{x}{3})^{-2}$
9. $(1+\frac{2x}{3})^{\frac{3}{2}}$
10. $(1+\frac{1}{2}a)^{-4}$
11. $(2+x)^{-2}$
12. $(9+2x)^{\frac{1}{2}}$
13. $(8+12a)^{\frac{3}{2}}$
14. $(9-6x)^{-\frac{3}{2}}$
15. $(4a-8x)^{-\frac{1}{2}}$

II. Write down and simplify:

1. The 8th term of $(1+2x)^{-\frac{1}{2}}$
2. The 11th term of $(1-2x^{3})^{\frac{11}{2}}$
3. The 16th term of $(1+3a^{2})^{\frac{16}{3}}$
4. The 6th term of $(3a-2b)^{-1}$
5. The $(r+1)^{th}$ term of $(1-x)^{-2}$
6. The $(r+1)^{th}$ term of $(1-x)^{-4}$
7. The $(r+1)^{th}$ term of $(1+x)^{\frac{1}{2}}$
8. The $(r+1)^{th}$ term of $(1+x)^{\frac{11}{3}}$
9. The 14th term of $(2^{10}-2^{7}x)^{\frac{13}{2}}$
10. The 7th term of $(3^{8}+6^{4}x)^{\frac{11}{4}}$

Regards,

Nalin Pithwa

### best explanation of epsilon delta definition

Refer any edition of (i) Calculus and Analytic Geometry by Thomas and Finney (ii) recent editions which go by the title “Thomas’ Calculus”. If you need, you will have to go through the previous stuff (given in the text) on “preliminaries” and/or functions also. For Sets, Functions and Relations, I have also presented a long series of articles on this blog.

Ref:

https://www.amazon.in/Thomas-Calculus-George-B/dp/9353060419/ref=sr_1_1?crid=3F1XO0L9KBT1F&keywords=thomas+calculus&qid=1581323971&s=books&sprefix=Thomas+%2Caps%2C265&sr=1-1

### Theory of Quadratic Equations: Part III: Tutorial practice problems: IITJEE Mains and preRMO

Problem 1:

Find the condition that a quadratic function of x and y may be resolved into two linear factors. For instance, a general form of such a function would be : $ax^{2}+2hxy+by^{2}+2gx+2fy+c$.

Problem 2:

Find the condition that the equations $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ and $a^{'}x^{2}+b^{'}x+c^{'}=0$ may have a common root.

Using the above result, find the condition that the two quadratic functions $ax^{2}+bxy+cy^{2}$ and $a^{'}x^{2}+b^{'}xy+c^{'}y^{2}$ may have a common linear factor.

Problem 3:

For what values of m will the expression $y^{2}+2xy+2x+my-3$ be capable of resolution into two rational factors?

Problem 4:

Find the values of m which will make $2x^{2}+mxy+3y^{2}-5y-2$ equivalent to the product of two linear factors.

Problem 5:

Show that the expression $A(x^{2}-y^{2})-xy(B-C)$ always admits of two real linear factors.

Problem 6:

If the equations $x^{2}+px+q=0$ and $x^{2}+p^{'}x+q^{'}=0$ have a common root, show that it must be equal to $\frac{pq^{'}-p^{'}q}{q-q^{'}}$ or $\frac{q-q^{'}}{p^{'}-p}$.

Problem 7:

Find the condition that the expression $lx^{2}+mxy+ny^{2}$ and $l^{'}x^{2}+m^{'}xy+n^{'}y^{2}$ may have a common linear factor.

Problem 8:

If the expression $3x^{2}+2Pxy+2y^{2}+2ax-4y+1$ can be resolved into linear factors, prove that P must be be one of the roots of the equation $P^{2}+4aP+2a^{2}+6=0$.

Problem 9:

Find the condition that the expressions $ax^{2}+2hxy+by^{2}$ and $a^{'}x^{2}+2h^{'}xy+b^{'}y^{2}$ may be respectively divisible by factors of the form $y-mx$ and $my+x$.

Problem 10:

Prove that the equation $x^{2}-3xy+2y^{2}-2x-3y-35=0$ for every real value of x, there is a real value of y, and for every real value of y, there is a real value of x.

Problem 11:

If x and y are two real quantities connected by the equation $9x^{2}+2xy+y^{2}-92x-20y+244=0$, then will x lie between 3 and 6, and y between 1 and 10.

Problem 11:

If $(ax^{2}+bx+c)y+a^{'}x^{2}+b^{'}x+c^{'}=0$, find the condition that x may be a rational function of y.

More later,

Regards,

Nalin Pithwa.

### Theory of Quadratic Equations: part II: tutorial problems: IITJEE Mains, preRMO

Problem 1:

If x is a real number, prove that the rational function $\frac{x^{2}+2x-11}{2(x-3)}$ can have all numerical values except such as lie between 2 and 6. In other words, find the range of this rational function. (the domain of this rational function is all real numbers except $x=3$ quite obviously.

Problem 2:

For all real values of x, prove that the quadratic function $y=f(x)=ax^{2}+bx+c$ has the same sign as a, except when the roots of the quadratic equation $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ are real and unequal, and x has a value lying between them. This is a very useful famous classic result.

Remarks:

a) From your proof, you can conclude the following also: The expression $ax^{2}+bx+c$ will always have the same sign, whatever real value x may have, provided that $b^{2}-4ac$ is negative or zero; and if this condition is satisfied, the expression is positive, or negative accordingly as a is positive or negative.

b) From your proof, and using the above conclusion, you can also conclude the following: Conversely, in order that the expression $ax^{2}+bx+c$ may be always positive, $b^{2}-4ac$ must be negative or zero; and, a must be positive; and, in order that $ax^{2}+bx+c$ may be always negative, $b^{2}-4ac$ must be negative or zero, and a must be negative.

Further Remarks:

Please note that the function $y=f(x)=ax^{2}+bx+c$, where $a, b, c \in \Re$ and $a \neq 0$ is a parabola. The roots of this $y=f(x)=0$ are the points where the parabola cuts the y axis. Can you find the vertex of this parabola? Compare the graph of the elementary parabola $y=x^{2}$, with the graph of $y=ax^{2}$ where $a \neq 0$ and further with the graph of the general parabola $y=ax^{2}+bx+c$. Note you will just have to convert the expression $ax^{2}+bx+c$ to a perfect square form.

Problem 3:

Find the limits between which a must lie in order that the rational function $\frac{ax^{2}-7x+5}{5x^{2}-7x+a}$ may be real, if x is real.

Problem 4:

Determine the limits between which n must lie in order that the equation $2ax(ax+nc)+(n^{2}-2)c^{2}=0$ may have real roots.

Problem 5:

If x be real, prove that $\frac{x}{x^{2}-5x+9}$ must lie between 1 and $-\frac{1}{11}$.

Problem 6:

Prove that the range of the rational function $y=f(x)=\frac{x^{2}-x+1}{x^{2}+x+1}$ lies between 3 and $\frac{1}{3}$ for all real values of x.

Problem 7:

If $x \in \Re$, Prove that the rational function $y=f(x)=\frac{x^{2}+34x-71}{x^{2}+2x-7}$ can have no value between 5 and 9. In other words, prove that the range of the function is $(x <5)\bigcup(x>9)$.

Problem 8:

Find the equation whose roots are $\frac{\sqrt{a}}{\sqrt{a} \pm \sqrt(a-b)}$.

Problem 9:

If $\alpha, \beta$ are roots of the quadratic equation $x^{2}-px+q=0$, find the value of (a) $\alpha^{2}(\alpha^{2}\beta^{-1}-\beta)+\beta^{2}(\beta^{2}\alpha^{-1}-\alpha)$ (b) $(\alpha-p)^{-4}+(\beta-p)^{-4}$.

Problem 10:

If the roots of $lx^{2}+mx+n=0$ be in the ratio p:q, prove that $\sqrt{\frac{p}{q}}+\sqrt{\frac{q}{p}}+\sqrt{\frac{n}{l}}=0$

Problem 11:

If x be real, the expression $\frac{(x+m)^{2}-4mn}{2(x-n)}$ admits of all values except such as those that lie between 2n and 2m.

Problem 12:

If the roots of the equation $ax^{2}+2bx+c=0$ are $\alpha$ and $\beta$, and those of the equation $Ax^{2}+2Bx+C=0$ be $\alpha+\delta$ and $\beta+\delta$, prove that $\frac{b^{2}-ac}{a^{2}} = \frac{B^{2}-AC}{A^{2}}$.

Problem 13:

Prove that the rational function $y=f(x)=\frac{px^{2}+3x-4}{p+3x-4x^{2}}$ will be capable of all values when x is real, provided that p has any real value between 1 and 7. That is, under the conditions on p, we have to show that the given rational function has as its range the full real numbers. (Of course, the domain is real except those values of x for which the denominator is zero).

Problem 14:

Find the greatest value of $\frac{x+2}{2x^{2}+3x+6}$ for any real value of x. (Remarks: this is maxima-minima problem which can be solved with algebra only, calculus is not needed).

Problem 15:

Show that if x is real, the expression $(x^{2}-bc)(2x-b-c)^{-1}$ has no real value between b and a.

Problem 16:

If the roots of $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ be possible (real) and different, then the roots of $(a+c)(ax^{2}+2bx+c)=2(ac-b^{2})(x^{2}+1)$ will not be real, and vice-versa. Prove this.

Problem 17:

Prove that the rational function $y=f(x)=\frac{(ax-b)(dx-c)}{(bx-a)(cx-a)}$ will be capable of all real values when x is real, if $a^{2}-b^{2}$ and $c^{2}-a^{2}$ have the same sign.

Cheers,

Nalin Pithwa

### Theory of Quadratic Equations: Tutorial problems : Part I: IITJEE Mains, preRMO

I) Form the equations whose roots are:

a) $-\frac{4}{5}, \frac{3}{7}$ (b) $\frac{m}{n}, -\frac{n}{m}$ (c) $\frac{p-q}{p+q}, -\frac{p+q}{p-q}$ (d) $7 \pm 2\sqrt{5}$ (e) $-p \pm 2\sqrt{2q}$ (f) $-3 \pm 5i$ (g) $-a \pm ib$ (h) $\pm i(a-b)$ (i) $-3, \frac{2}{3}, \frac{1}{2}$ (j) $\frac{a}{2},0, -\frac{2}{a}$ (k) $2 \pm \sqrt{3}, 4$

II) Prove that the roots of the following equations are real:

i) $x^{2}-2ax+a^{2}-b^{2}-c^{2}=0$

ii) $(a-b+c)x^{2}+4(a-b)x+(a-b-c)=0$

III) If the equation $x^{2}-15-m(2x-8)=0$ has equal roots, find the values of m.

IV) For what values of m will the equation $x^{2}-2x(1+3m)+7(3+2m)=0$ have equal roots?

V) For what value of m will the equation $\frac{x^{2}-bx}{ax-c} = \frac{m-1}{m+1}$ have roots equal in magnitude but opposite in sign?

VI) Prove that the roots of the following equations are rational:

(i) $(a+c-b)x^{2}+2ax+(b+c-a)=0$

(ii) $abc^{2}x^{2}+3a^{2}cx+b^{2}ax-6a^{2}-ab+2b^{2}=0$

VII) If $\alpha, \beta$ are the roots of the equation $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$, find the values of

(i) $\frac{1}{\alpha^{2}} + \frac{1}{\beta^{2}}$

(ii) $\alpha^{4}\beta^{7}+\alpha^{7}\beta^{4}$

(iii) $(\frac{\alpha}{\beta}-\frac{\beta}{\alpha})^{2}$

VIII) Find the value of:

(a) $x^{3}+x^{2}-x+22$ when $x=1+2i$

(b) $x^{3}-3x^{2}-8x+16$ when $x=3+i$

(c) $x^{3}-ax^{2}+2a^{2}x+4a^{3}$ when $\frac{x}{a}=1-\sqrt{-3}$

IX) If $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are the roots of $x^{2}+px+q=0$ form the equation whose roots are $(\alpha-\beta)^{2}$ and $(\alpha+\beta)^{2}$/

X) Prove that the roots of $(x-a)(x-b)=k^{2}$ are always real.

XI) If $\alpha_{1}, \alpha_{2}$ are the roots of $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$, find the value of (i) $(ax_{1}+b)^{-2}+(ax_{2}+b)^{-2}$ (ii) $(ax_{1}+b)^{-3}+(ax_{2}+b)^{-3}$

XII) Find the condition that one root of $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ shall be n times the other.

XIII) If $\alpha, \beta$ are the roots of $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ form the equation whose roots are $\alpha^{2}+\beta^{2}$ and $\alpha^{-2}+\beta^{-2}$.

XIV) Form the equation whose roots are the squares of the sum and of the differences of the roots of $2x^{2}+2(m+n)x+m^{2}+n^{2}=0$.

XV) Discuss the signs of the roots of the equation $px^{2}+qx+r=0$

XVI) If a, b and c are odd integers, prove that the roots of the equation $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ cannot be rational numbers.

XVII) Given that the equation $x^{4}+px^{3}+qx^{2}+rx+s=0$ has four real positive roots, prove that (a) $pr-16s \geq 0$ (b) $q^{2}-36s \geq 0$, where equality holds, in each case, if and only if the roots are equal.

XVIII) Let $p(x)=x^{2}+ax+b$ be a quadratic polynomial in which a and b are integers. Given any integer n, show that there is an integer M such that $p(n)p(n+1)=p(M)$.

Cheers,

Nalin Pithwa.

### Rules for Inequalities

If a, b and c are real numbers, then

1. $a < b \Longrightarrow a + c< b + c$
2. $a < b \Longrightarrow a - c < b - c$
3. $a < b \hspace{0.1in} and \hspace{0.1in}c > 0 \Longrightarrow ac < bc$
4. $a < b \hspace{0.1in} and \hspace{0.1in}c < 0 \Longrightarrow bc < ac$ special case: $a < b \Longrightarrow -b < -a$
5. $a > 0 \Longrightarrow \frac{1}{a} > 0$
6. If a and b are both positive or both negative, then $a < b \Longrightarrow \frac{1}{b} < \frac{1}{a}$.

Remarks:

Notice the rules for multiplying an inequality by a number: Multiplying by a positive number preserves the inequality; multiplying by a negative number reverses the inequality. Also, reciprocation reverses the inequality for numbers of the same sign.

Regards,

Nalin Pithwa.

### Set Theory, Relations, Functions Preliminaries: Part III

FUNCTIONS:

Functions as a special kind of relation:

Let us first consider an example where set A is a set of men, and B is a set of positive real numbers. Let us say f is a relation from A to B given by : $f = \{ (x,y) : x \in A, y \hspace{0.1in} is \hspace{0.1in} the \hspace{0.1in} weight \hspace{0.1in} of \hspace{0.1in} the \hspace{0.1in} person \hspace{0.1in} x \}$

Hence, f “relates” every man in set A to his weight in set B. That is,

i) Every man has some weight associated with him in set B. (ii) That weight is unique. That is, a person cannot have more than one weight (at a given time, of course) !! 🙂 This, of course, does not mean that two different persons, say P and Q may not have the same weight 100 kg ( the same element of set B). The only thing it means is that any one person, say P will have one and only one weight (100kg) at the time instant of measurement and not more than one weights (which would be crazy) at a time instant it is measured !!

Definition I (a function defined as a relation):

A function f from a set A (called domain) to a set B (called codomain) is a relation that associates or “pairs up” every element of domain A with a unique element of codomain B. (Note that whereas a relation from a set A to a set B is just a subset of the cartesian product $A \times B$).

Some remarks: The above definition is also motivated by an example of a function as a relation. On the other hand, another definition of a function can be motivated as follows:

We know that the boiling point of water depends on the height of water above sea level. We also know that the simple interest on a deposit in a bank depends on the duration of deposit held in the bank. In these and several such examples, one quantity, say y, depends on another quantity “x”.

Symbol: $f: A \longrightarrow B$; if $x \in A, y \in B$, then we also denote: $f: x \longmapsto y$; we also write $y=f(x)$, read as “y is f of x”.

Here, y is called image of x under f and x is called the preimage of y under f.

Definition: Range: The set of all images in B is called the range of f. That is, $Range = \{ f(x): x \in A\}$

Note: (i) Every function is a relation but every relation need not be a function. (Homework quiz: find illustrative examples for the same) (ii) If the domain and codomain are not specified, they are assumed to be the set of real numbers.

In calculus, we often want to refer to a generic function without having any particular formula in mind. Leonhard Euler invented a symbolic way to say “y is a function of x” by writing

$y = f(x)$ (“y equals f of x”)

In this equation, the symbol f represents the function. The letter x, called the independent variable, represents an input value from the domain of f, and y, the dependent variable, represents the corresponding output value f(x) in the range of f. Here is the formal definition of function: (definition 2):

function from a set D to a set $\Re$ is a rule that assigns a unique element f(x) in $\Re$ to each element x in D.

In this definition, D=D(f) (read “D of f”) is the domain of the function f and $\Re$ is the range (or codomain containing the range of f).

Think of a function f as a kind of machine that produces an output value f(x) in its range whenever we feed it an input value x from its domain. In our scope, we will usually define functions in one of two ways:

a) by giving a formula such as $y=x^{2}$ that uses a dependent variable y to denote the value of the function, or

b) by giving a formula such as $f(x)=x^{2}$ that defines a function symbol f to name the function.

NOTE: there can be well-defined functions which do not have any formula at all; for example, let $f(x) = 0$ when $x \in Q$ and $f(x)=1$, when $x \in Q^{'}$.

Strictly speaking, we should call the function f and not f(x) as the latter denotes the value of the function at the point x. However, as is common usage, we will often refer to the function as f(x) in order to name the variable on which f depends.

It is sometimes convenient to use a single letter to denote both a function and the dependent variable. For instance, we might say that the area A of a circle of radius r is given by the function : $A(r)=\pi r^{2}$.

Evaluation:

As we said earlier, most of the functions in our scope will be real-valued function of a real variable, functions whose domains and ranges are sets of real numbers. We evaluate such functions by susbtituting particular values from the domain into the function’s defining rule to calculate the corresponding values in the range.

Example 1:

The volume V of a ball (solid sphere) r is given by the function: $V(r)=\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3}$.

The volume of a ball of radius 3 meters is : $V(3)=\frac{4}{3}\pi (3)^{3}=36 \pi m^{3}$.

Example 2:

Suppose that the function F is defined for all real numbers t by the formula: $F(t)=2(t-1)+3$.

Evaluate F at the output values 0, 2, $x+2$, and F(2).

Solution 2:

In each case, we substitute the given input value for t into the formula for F:

$F(0)=2(0-1)+3=-2+3=1$

$F(2)=2(2-1)+3=2+3=5$

$F(x+2)=2(x+2-1)+3=2x+3$

$F(F(2))=F(5)=2(5-1)+3=11$

The Domain Convention

When we define a function $y=f(x)$ with a formula and the domain is not stated explicitly, the domain is assumed to be the largest set of x-values for which the formula gives real x-values. This is the function’s so-called natural domain. If we want the domain to be restricted in some way, we must say so.

The domain of the function $y=x^{2}$ is understood to be the entire set of real numbers. The formula gives a real value y-value for every real number x. If we want to restrict the domain to values of x greater than or equal to 2, we must write ” $y=x^{2}$” for $x \geq 2$.

Changing the domain to which we apply a formula usually changes the range as well. The range of $y=x^{2}$ is $[0, \infty)$. The  range of $y=x^{2}$ where $x \geq 2$ is the set of all numbers obtained by squaring numbers greater than or equal to 2. In symbols, the range is $\{ x^{2}: x \geq 2\}$ or $\{ y: y \geq 4\}$ or $[4,\infty)$

Example 3:

Function : $y = \sqrt{1-x^{2}}$; domain $[-1,1]$; Range (y) is $[0,1]$

Function: $y=\frac{1}{x}$; domain $(-\infty,0) \bigcup (0,\infty)$; Range (y) is $(-\infty,0)\bigcup (0,\infty)$

Function: $y=\sqrt{x}$; domain $(0,\infty)$ and range (y) is $(0,\infty)$

Function $y = \sqrt{4-x}$, domain $(-\infty,,4]$, and range (y) is $[0, \infty)$

Graphs of functions:

The graph of a function f is the graph of the equation $y=f(x)$. It consists of the points in the Cartesian plane whose co-ordinates $(x,y)$ are input-output pairs for f.

Not every curve you draw is the graph of a function. A function f can have only one value f(x) for each x in its domain so no vertical line can intersect the graph of a function more than once. Thus, a circle cannot be the graph of a function since some vertical line intersect the circle twice. If a is in the domain of a function f, then the vertical line $x=a$ will intersect the graph of f in the single point $(a, f(a))$.

Example 4: Graph the function $y=x^{2}$ over the interval $[-2.2]$. (homework).Thinking further: so plotting the above graph requires a table of x and y values; but how do we connect the points ? Should we connect two points by a straight line, smooth line, zig-zag line ??? How do we know for sure what the graph looks like between the points we plot? The answer lies in calculus, as we will see in later chapter. There will be a marvelous mathematical tool called the derivative to find a curve’s shape between plotted points. Meanwhile, we will have to settle for plotting points and connecting them as best as we can.

PS: (1) you can use GeoGebra, a beautiful freeware for plotting various graphs, and more stuff https://www.geogebra.org/ (2) If you wish, you can use a TI-graphing calculator. This is a nice investment for many other things like number theory also. See for example,

https://www.amazon.in/Texas-Instruments-Nspire-Graphing-Calculator/dp/B004NBZAYS/ref=sr_1_2?crid=3JSHJUOZMDMUS&keywords=ti+nspire+cx&qid=1569334614&s=electronics&sprefix=TI+%2Caps%2C267&sr=1-2

Meanwhile, you need to be extremely familiar with graphs of following functions; plot and check on your own:

$y=x^{3}$, $y=x^{2/3}$, $y=\sqrt{x}$, $y=\sqrt[3]{x}$, $y=\frac{1}{x}$, $y=\frac{1}{x^{2}}$, $y=mx$, where $m \in Z$, $y=x^{3/2}$

Sums, Differences, Products and Quotients

Like numbers, functions can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided (except where the the denominator is zero) to produce new functions. If f and g are functions, then for every x that belongs to the domains of BOTH f and g, we define functions: $f+g$, $f-g$, $fg$ by the formulas:

$(f+g)(x)=f(x)+g(x)$,

$(f-g)(x)=f(x)-g(x)$

$(fg)(x)=f(x)g(x)$

At any point $D(f) \bigcap D(g)$ at which $g(x) \neq 0$, we can also define the function $f/g$ by the formula:

$(\frac{f}{g})(x)=\frac{f(x)}{g(x)}$, where $g(x) \neq 0$

Functions can also be multiplied by constants. If c is a real number, then the function cf is defined for all x in the domain of f by $(cf)(x)=cf(x)$

Example 5:

Function $f$, formula $y=\sqrt{x}$, domain $[0,\infty)$

Function $g$, formula $g(x)=\sqrt{(1-x)}$, domain $(-\infty, 1]$

Function $3g$, formula $3g(x)=3\sqrt{(1-x)}$, domain $(-\infty, 1]$

Function $f+g$, formula $(f+g)(x)=\sqrt{x}+\sqrt{(1-x)}$, domain $[0,1]=D(f) \bigcap D(g)$

Function $f-g$, formula $(f-g)(x)=\sqrt{x}-\sqrt{(1-x)}$, domain $[0.1]$

Function $g-f$, formula $(g-f)(x)=\sqrt{(1-x)}-\sqrt{x}$, domain $[0,1]$

Function $f . g$, formula $(f . g)(x)=f(x)g(x) = \sqrt{x(1-x)}$, domain $[0,1]$

Function $\frac{f}{g}$, formula $\frac{f}{g}(x)=\frac{f(x)}{g(x)}=\sqrt{\frac{x}{1-x}}$, domain is $[0,1)$

Function $\frac{g}{f}(x) = \frac{g(x)}{f(x)}=\sqrt{\frac{1-x}{x}}$, domain $(0,1]$

Composite Functions:

Composition is another method for combining functions.

Definition:

If f and g are functions, the composite function $f \circ g$ (f “circle” g) is defined by $(f \circ g)(x)=f(g(x))$. The domain of $f \circ g$ consists of the numbers x in the domain of g for which $g(x)$ lies in the domain of f.

The definition says that two functions can be composed when the image of the first lies in the domain of the second. To $(f \circ g)(x)$ we first find $g(x)$ and second find $f(g(x))$.

Clearly, in general, $(f \circ g)(x) \neq (g \circ f)(x)$. That is, composition of functions is not commutative.

Example 6:

If $f(x)=\sqrt{x}$ and $g(x)=x+1$, find (a) $(f \circ g)(x)$ (b) $(g \circ f)(x)$ (c) $(f \circ f)(x)$ (d) $(g \circ g)(x)$

Solution 6:

a) $(f \circ g)(x) = f(g(x))=\sqrt{g(x)}=\sqrt{x+1}$, domain is $[-1, \infty)$

b) $(g \circ f)(x)=g(f(x))=f(x)+1=\sqrt{x}+1$, domain is $[0, \infty)$

c) $(f \circ f)(x)=f(f(x))=\sqrt{f(x)}=\sqrt{\sqrt{x}}=x^{\frac{1}{4}}$, domain is $[0, \infty)$

d) $(g \circ g)(x)=g(g(x))=g(x)+1=(x+1)+1=x+2$, domain is $\Re$ or $(-\infty, \infty)$

Even functions and odd functions:

A function f(x) is said to be even if $f(x)=f(-x)$. That is, the function possesses symmetry about the y-axis. Example, $y=f(x)=x^{2}$.

A function f(x) is said to be odd if $f(x)=-f(-x)$. That is, the function possesses symmetry about the origin. Example $y=f(x)=x^{3}$.

Any function can be expressed as a sum of an even function and an odd function.

A function could be neither even nor odd.

Note that a function like $y^{2}=x$ possesses symmetry about the x-axis !!

Piecewise Defined Functions:

Sometimes a function uses different formulas or formulae over different parts of its domain. One such example is the absolute value function:

$y=f(x) = |x|=x$, when $x \geq 0$ and $y=-x$, when $x<0$.

Example 7:

The function $f(x)=-x$, when $x<0$, $y=f(x)=x^{2}$, when $0 \leq x \leq 1$, and $f(x)=1$, when $x>1$.

Example 8:

The greatest integer function:

The function whose value at any number x is the greatest integer less than or equal to x is called the greatest integer function or the integer floor function. It is denoted by $\lfloor x \rfloor$.

Observe that $\lfloor 2.4 \rfloor =2$; $\lfloor 1.4 \rfloor =1$; $\lfloor 0 \rfloor =0$; $\lfloor -1.2 \rfloor =-2$; $\lfloor 2 \rfloor =2$; $\lfloor 0.2 \rfloor =0$$\lfloor -0.3 \rfloor =-1$; $\lfloor -2 \rfloor =-2$.

Example 9:

The least integer function:

The function whose value at any number x is the smallest integer greater than or equal to x is called the least integer function or the integer ceiling function. It is denoted by $\lceil x \rceil$. For positive values of x, this function might represent, for example, the cost of parking x hours in a parking lot which charges USD 1 for each hour or part of an hour.

Cheers,

Nalin Pithwa

### You and your research ( You and your studies) : By Richard Hamming, AT and T, Bell Labs mathematician;

Although the title is grand (and quite aptly so)…the reality is that it can be applied to serious studies for IITJEE entrance, CMI entrance, highly competitive math olympiads, and also competitive coding contests…in fact, to various aspects of student life and various professional lifes…

https://www.cs.virginia.edu/~robins/YouAndYourResearch.html

### Tricky Trigonometry questions for IITJEE mains maths practice

Prove the following:

1. $\frac{\sin{A}}{1-\cos{A}} = \frac{1+\cos{A}-\sin{A}}{\sin{A}-1+\cos{A}}$
2. $\frac{1+\sin{A}}{\cos{A}}=\frac{1+\sin{A}+\cos{A}}{\cos{A}+1-\sin{A}}$
3. $\frac{\tan{A}}{\sec{A}-1}=\frac{\tan{A}+\sec{A}+1}{\sec{A}-1+\tan{A}}$
4. $\frac{1+\csc{A}+ \cot{A}}{1+\csc{A}-\cot{A}} = \frac{\csc{A}+\cot{A}-1}{\cot{A}-\csc{A}+1}$

Hint: Directly trying to prove LHS is RHS is difficult in all the above; or even trying to transform RHS to LHS is equally difficult; it is quite easier to prove the equivalent statement by taking cross-multiplication of the appropriate expressions. 🙂

Regards,

Nalin Pithwa.

### The importance of lines and slopes

1. Light travels along straight lines. In fact, the shortest distance between any two points is the path taken by a light wave to travel from the initial point to the final point. In other words, it is a straight line. (A slight detour: using this elementary fact, can you prove the triangle inequality?)
2. Bodies falling from rest in a planet’s gravitational field do so in a straight line.
3. Bodies coasting under their own momentum (like a hockey puck gliding across the ice) do so in a straight line. (Think of Newton’s First Law of Motion).

So we often use the equations of lines (called linear equations) to study such motions.

Many important quantities are related by linear equations. Once we know that a relationship between two variables is linear, we can find it from any two pairs of corresponding values just as we find the equation of a line from the coordinates of two points.

Slope is important because it gives us a way to say how steep something is (roadbeds, roofs, stairs, banking of railway tracks). The notion of a slope also enables us to describe how rapidly things are changing. (To philosophize, everything in the observable universe is changing). For this reason, slope plays an important role in calculus.

More later,

Nalin Pithwa.

PS: Ref: Calculus and Analytic Geometry by G B Thomas and Finney; or any other book on calculus.

PS: I strongly recommend the Thomas and Finney book : You can get it from Amazon India or Flipkart:

https://www.amazon.in/Thomas-Calculus-George-B/dp/9353060419/ref=sr_1_1?crid=36S3685TG7OYF&keywords=thomas+calculus&qid=1561503390&s=books&sprefix=Thomas+%2Caps%2C259&sr=1-1

or Flipkart:

https://www.flipkart.com/thomas-calculus-1/p/itmebug5kzrnttfj?pid=9789332547278&lid=LSTBOK9789332547278CHN4GH&marketplace=FLIPKART&srno=s_1_23&otracker=AS_Query_OrganicAutoSuggest_2_9&otracker1=AS_Query_OrganicAutoSuggest_2_9&fm=SEARCH&iid=fdc8327b-756c-4f6d-aa10-b45acc900e12.9789332547278.SEARCH&ppt=sp&ppn=sp&ssid=uz7zckp71c0000001561503474614&qH=2488f76736a10369