Category Archives: ISI Kolkatta Entrance Exam

Rules for Inequalities

If a, b and c are real numbers, then

  1. a < b \Longrightarrow a + c< b + c
  2. a < b \Longrightarrow a - c < b - c
  3. a < b \hspace{0.1in} and \hspace{0.1in}c > 0 \Longrightarrow ac < bc
  4. a < b \hspace{0.1in} and \hspace{0.1in}c < 0 \Longrightarrow bc < ac special case: a < b \Longrightarrow -b < -a
  5. a > 0 \Longrightarrow \frac{1}{a} > 0
  6. If a and b are both positive or both negative, then a < b \Longrightarrow \frac{1}{b} < \frac{1}{a}.


Notice the rules for multiplying an inequality by a number: Multiplying by a positive number preserves the inequality; multiplying by a negative number reverses the inequality. Also, reciprocation reverses the inequality for numbers of the same sign.


Nalin Pithwa.

Set Theory, Relations, Functions Preliminaries: II


Concept of Order:

Let us say that we create a “table” of two columns in which the first column is the name of the father, and the second column is name of the child. So, it can have entries like (Yogesh, Meera), (Yogesh, Gopal), (Kishor, Nalin), (Kishor, Yogesh), (Kishor, Darshna) etc. It is quite obvious that “first” is the “father”, then “second” is the child. We see that there is a “natural concept of order” in human “relations”. There is one more, slightly crazy, example of “importance of order” in real-life. It is presented below (and some times also appears in basic computer science text as rise and shine algorithm) —-

Rise and Shine algorithm: 

When we get up from sleep in the morning, we brush our teeth, finish our morning ablutions; next, we remove our pyjamas and shirt and then (secondly) enter the shower; there is a natural order here; first we cannot enter the shower, and secondly we do not remove the pyjamas and shirt after entering the shower. 🙂

Ordered Pair: Definition and explanation:

A pair (a,b) of numbers, such that the order, in which the numbers appear is important, is called an ordered pair. In general, ordered pairs (a,b) and (b,a) are different. In ordered pair (a,b), ‘a’ is called first component and ‘b’ is called second component.

Two ordered pairs (a,b) and (c,d) are equal, if and only if a=c and b=d. Also, (a,b)=(b,a) if and only if a=b.

Example 1: Find x and y when (x+3,2)=(4,y-3).

Solution 1: Equating the first components and then equating the second components, we have:

x+3=4 and 2=y-3

x=1 and y=5

Cartesian products of two sets:

Let A and B be two non-empty sets then the cartesian product of A and B is denoted by A x B (read it as “A cross B”),and is defined as the set of all ordered pairs (a,b) such that a \in A, b \in B.

Thus, A \times B = \{ (a,b): a \in A, b \in B\}

e.g., if A = \{ 1,2\} and B = \{ a,b,c\}, tnen A \times B = \{ (1,a),(1,b),(1,c),(2,a),(2,b),(2,c)\}.

If A = \phi or B=\phi, we define A \times B = \phi.

Number of elements of a cartesian product:

By the following basic counting principle: If a task A can be done in m ways, and a task B can be done in n ways, then the tasks A (first) and task B (later) can be done in mn ways.

So, the cardinality of A x B is given by: n(A \times B)= n(A) \times n(B).

So, in general if a cartesian product of p finite sets, viz, A_{1}, A_{2}, A_{3}, \ldots, A_{p} is given by n(A_{1} \times A_{2} \times A_{3} \ldots A_{p}) = n(A_{1}) \times n(A_{2}) \times \ldots \times n(A_{p})

Definitions of relations, arrow diagrams (or pictorial representation), domain, co-domain, and range of a relation:

Consider the following statements:

i) Sunil is a friend of Anil.

ii) 8 is greater than 4.

iii) 5 is a square root of 25.

Here, we can say that Sunil is related to Anil by the relation ‘is a friend of’; 8 and 4 are related by the relation ‘is greater than’; similarly, in the third statement, the relation is ‘is a square root of’.

The word relation implies an association of two objects according to some property which they possess. Now, let us some mathematical aspects of relation;


A and B are two non-empty sets then any subset of A \times B is called relation from A to B, and is denoted by capital letters P, Q and R. If R is a relation and (x,y) \in R then it is denoted by xRy.

y is called image of x under R and x is called pre-image of y under R.

Let A=\{ 1,2,3,4,5\} and B=\{ 1,4,5\}.

Let R be a relation such that (x,y) \in R implies x < y. We list the elements of R.

Solution: Here A = \{ 1,2,3,4,5\} and B=\{ 1,4,5\} so that R = \{ (1,4),(1,5),(2,4),(2,5),(3,4),(3,5),(4,5)\} Note this is the relation R from A to B, that is, it is a subset of A x B.

Check: Is a relation R^{'} from B to A defined by x<y, with x \in B and y \in A — is this relation R^{'} *same* as R from A to B? Ans: Let us list all the elements of R^{‘} explicitly: R^{'} = \{ (1,2),(1,3),(1,4),(1,5),(4,5)\}. Well, we can surely compare the two sets R and R^{'} — the elements “look” different certainly. Even if they “look” same in terms of numbers, the two sets R and R^{'} are fundamentally different because they have different domains and co-domains.

Definition : Domain of a relation R: The set of all the first components of the ordered pairs in a relation R is called the domain of relation R. That is, if R \subseteq A \times B, then domain (R) is \{ a: (a,b) \in R\}.

Definition: Range: The set of all second components of all ordered pairs in a relation R is called the range of the relation. That is, if R \subseteq A \times B, then range (R) = \{ b: (a,b) \in R\}.

Definition: Codomain: If R is a relation from A to B, then set B is called co-domain of the relation R. Note: Range is a subset of co-domain.

Type of Relations:

One-one relation: A relation R from a set A to B is said to be one-one if every element of A has at most one image in B and distinct elements in A have distinct images in B. For example, let A = \{ 1,2,3,4\}, and let B=\{ 2,3,4,5,6,7\} and let R_{1}= \{ (1,3),(2,4),(3,5)\} Then R_{1} is a one-one relation. Here, domain of R_{1}= \{ 1,2,3\} and range of R_{1} is \{ 3,4,5\}.

Many-one relation: A relation R from A to B is called a many-one relation if two or more than two elements in the domain A are associated with a single (unique) element in co-domain B. For example, let R_{2}=\{ (1,4),(3,7),(4,4)\}. Then, R_{2} is many-one relation from A to B. (please draw arrow diagram). Note also that domain of R_{1}=\{ 1,3,4\} and range of R_{1}=\{ 4,7\}.

Into Relation: A relation R from A to B is said to be into relation if there exists at least one element in B, which has no pre-image in A. Let A=\{ -2,-1,0,1,2,3\} and B=\{ 0,1,2,3,4\}. Consider the relation R_{1}=\{ (-2,4),(-1,1),(0,0),(1,1),(2,4) \}. So, clearly range is \{ 0,1,4\} and range \subseteq B. Thus, R_{3} is a relation from A INTO B.

Onto Relation: A relation R from A to B is said to be ONTO relation if every element of B is the image of some element of A. For example: let set A= \{ -3,-2,-1,1,3,4\} and set B= \{ 1,4,9\}. Let R_{4}=\{ (-3,9),(-2,4), (-1,1), (1,1),(3,9)\}. So, clearly range of R_{4}= \{ 1,4,9\}. Range of R_{4} is co-domain of B. Thus, R_{4} is a relation from A ONTO B.

Binary Relation on a set A:

Let A be a non-empty set then every subset of A \times A is a binary relation on set A.

Illustrative Examples:

E.g.1: Let A = \{ 1,2,3\} and let A \times A = \{ (1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(2,1),(2,2),(2,3),(3,1),(3,2),(3,3)\}. Now, if we have a set R = \{ (1,2),(2,2),(3,1),(3,2)\} then we observe that R \subseteq A \times A, and hence, R is a binary relation on A.

E.g.2: Let N be the set of natural numbers and R = \{ (a,b) : a, b \in N and 2a+b=10\}. Since R \subseteq N \times N, R is a binary relation on N. Clearly, R = \{ (1,8),(2,6),(3,4),(4,2)\}. Also, for the sake of completeness, we state here the following: Domain of R is \{ 1,2,3,4\} and Range of R is \{ 2,4,6,8\}, codomain of R is N.

Note: (i) Since the null set is considered to be a subset of any set X, so also here, \phi \subset A \times A, and hence, \phi is a relation on any set A, and is called the empty or void relation on A. (ii) Since A \times A \subset A \times A, we say that A \subset A is a relation on A called the universal relation on A. 

Note: Let the cardinality of a (finite) set A be n(A)=p and that of another set B be n(B)=q, then the cardinality of the cartesian product n(A \times B)=pq. So, the number of possible subsets of A \times B is 2^{pq} which includes the empty set.

Types of relations:

Let A be a non-empty set. Then, a relation R on A is said to be: (i) Reflexive: if (a,a) \in R for all a \in A, that is, aRa for all a \in A. (ii) Symmetric: If (a,b) \in R \Longrightarrow (b,a) \in R for all a,b \in R (iii) Transitive: If (a,b) \in R, and (b,c) \in R, then so also (a,c) \in R.

Equivalence Relation: 

A (binary) relation on a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. An equivalence appears in many many areas of math. An equivalence measures “equality up to a property”. For example, in number theory, a congruence modulo is an equivalence relation; in Euclidean geometry, congruence and similarity are equivalence relations.

Also, we mention (without proof) that an equivalence relation on a set partitions the set in to mutually disjoint exhaustive subsets. 

Illustrative examples continued:

E.g. Let R be an equivalence relation on \mathbb{Q} defined by R = \{ (a,b): a, b \in \mathbb{Q}, (a-b) \in \mathbb{Z}\}. Prove that R is an equivalence relation.

Proof: Given that R = \{ (a,b) : a, b \in \mathbb{Q}, (a-b) \in \mathbb{Z}\}. (i) Let a \in \mathbb{Q} then a-a=0 \in \mathbb{Z}, hence, (a,a) \in R, so relation R is reflexive. (ii) Now, note that (a,b) \in R \Longrightarrow (a-b) \in \mathbb{Z}, that is, (a-b) is an integer \Longrightarrow -(b-a) \in \mathbb{Z} \Longrightarrow (b-a) \in \mathbb{Z} \Longrightarrow (b,a) \in R. That is, we have proved (a,b) \in R \Longrightarrow (b,a) \in R and so relation R is symmetric also. (iii) Now, let (a,b) \in R, and (b,c) \in R, which in turn implies that (a-b) \in \mathbb{Z} and (b-c) \in \mathbb{Z} so it \Longrightarrow (a-b)+(b-c)=a-c \in \mathbb{Z} (as integers are closed under addition) which in turn \Longrightarrow (a,c) \in R. Thus, (a,b) \in R and (b,c) \in R implies (a,c) \in R also, Hence, given relation R is transitive also. Hence, R is also an equivalence relation on \mathbb{Q}.

Illustrative examples continued:

E.g.: If (x+1,y-2) = (3,4), find the values of x and y.

Solution: By definition of an ordered pair, corresponding components are equal. Hence, we get the following two equations: x+1=3 and y-2=4 so the solution is x=2,y=6.

E.g.: If A = (1,2), list the set A \times A.

Solution: A \times A = \{ (1,1),(1,2),(2,1),(2,2)\}

E.g.: If A = \{1,3,5 \} and B=\{ 2,3\}, find A \times B, and B \times A, check if cartesian product is a commutative operation, that is, check if A \times B = B \times A.

Solution: A \times B = \{ (1,2),(1,3),(3,2),(3,3),(5,2),(5,3)\} whereas B \times A = \{ (2,1),(2,3),(2,5),(3,1),(3,3),(3,5)\} so since A \times B \neq B \times A so cartesian product is not a commutative set operation.

E.g.: If two sets A and B are such that their cartesian product is A \times B = \{ (3,2),(3,4),(5,2),(5,4)\}, find the sets A and B.

Solution: Using the definition of cartesian product of two sets, we know that set A contains as elements all the first components and set B contains as elements all the second components. So, we get A = \{ 3,5\} and B = \{ 2,4\}.

E.g.: A and B are two sets given in such a way that A \times B contains 6 elements. If three elements of A \times B are (1,3),(2,5),(3,3), find its remaining elements.

Solution: We can first observe that 6 = 3 \times 2 = 2 \times 3 so that A can contain 2 or 3 elements; B can contain 3 or 2 elements. Using definition of cartesian product of two sets, we get that A= \{ 1,2,3\} and \{ 3,5\} and so we have found the sets A and B completely.

E.g.: Express the set \{ (x,y) : x^{2}+y^{2}=25, x, y \in \mathbb{W}\} as a set of ordered pairs.

Solution: We have x^{2}+y^{2}=25 and so

x=0, y=5 \Longrightarrow x^{2}+y^{2}=0+25=25

x=3, y=4 \Longrightarrow x^{2}+y^{2}=9+16=25

x=4, y=3 \Longrightarrow x^{2}+y^{2}=16+9=25

x=5, y=0 \Longrightarrow x^{2}+y^{2}=25+0=25

Hence, the given set is \{ (0,5),(3,4),(4,3),(5,0)\}

E.g.: Let A = \{ 1,2,3\} and B = \{ 2,4,6\}. Show that R = \{ (1,2),(1,4),(3,2),(3,4)\} is a relation from A to B. Find the domain, co-domain and range.

Solution: Here, A \times B = \{ (1,2),(1,4),(1,6),(2,2),(2,4),(2,6),(3,2),(3,4),(3,6)\}. Clearly, R \subseteq A \times B. So R is a relation from A to B. The domain of R is the set of first components of R (which belong to set A, by definition of cartesian product and ordered pair)  and the codomain is set B. So, Domain (R) = \{ 1,3\} and co-domain of R is set B itself; and Range of R is \{ 2,4\}.

E.g.: Let A = \{ 1,2,3,4,5\} and B = \{ 1,4,5\}. Let R be a relation from A to B such that (x,y) \in R if x<y. List all the elements of R. Find the domain, codomain and range of R. (as homework quiz, draw its arrow diagram);

Solution: Let A = \{ 1,2,3,4,5\} and B = \{ 1,4,5\}. So, we get R as (1,4),(1,5),(2,4),(2,5),(3,4),(3,5),(4,5). domain(R) = \{ 1,2,3,4\}, codomain(R) = B, and range(R) = \{ 4,5\}.

E.g. Let A = \{ 1,2,3,4,5,6\}. Define a binary relation on A such that R = \{ (x,y) : y=x+1\}. Find the domain, codomain and range of R.

Solution: By definition, R \subseteq A \times A. Here, we get R = \{ (1,2),(2,3),(3,4),(4,5),(5,6)\}. So we get domain (R) = \{ 1,2,3,4,5\}, codomain(R) =A, range(R) = \{ 2,3,4,5,6\}

Tutorial problems:

  1. If (x-1,y+4)=(1,2), find the values of x and y.
  2. If (x + \frac{1}{3}, \frac{y}{2}-1)=(\frac{1}{2} , \frac{3}{2} )
  3. If A=\{ a,b,c\} and B = \{ x,y\}. Find out the following: A \times A, B \times B, A \times B and B \times A.
  4. If P = \{ 1,2,3\} and Q = \{ 4\}, find the sets P \times P, Q \times Q, P \times Q, and Q \times P.
  5. Let A=\{ 1,2,3,4\} and \{ 4,5,6\} and C = \{ 5,6\}. Find A \times (B \bigcap C), A \times (B \bigcup C), (A \times B) \bigcap (A \times C), A \times (B \bigcup C), and (A \times B) \bigcup (A \times C).
  6. Express \{ (x,y) : x^{2}+y^{2}=100 , x, y \in \mathbf{W}\} as a set of ordered pairs.
  7. Write the domain and range of the following relations: (i) \{ (a,b): a \in \mathbf{N}, a < 6, b=4\} (ii) \{ (a,b): a,b \in \mathbf{N}, a+b=12\} (iii) \{ (2,4),(2,5),(2,6),(2,7)\}
  8. Let A=\{ 6,8\} and B=\{ 1,3,5\}. Let R = \{ (a,b): a \in A, b \in B, a+b \hspace{0.1in} is \hspace{0.1in} an \hspace{0.1in} even \hspace{0.1in} number\}. Show that R is an empty relation from A to B.
  9. Write the following relations in the Roster form and hence, find the domain and range: (i) R_{1}= \{ (a,a^{2}) : a \hspace{0.1in} is \hspace{0.1in} prime \hspace{0.1in} less \hspace{0.1in} than \hspace{0.1in} 15\} (ii) R_{2} = \{ (a, \frac{1}{a}) : 0 < a \leq 5, a \in N\}
  10. Write the following relations as sets of ordered pairs: (i) \{ (x,y) : y=3x, x \in \{1,2,3 \}, y \in \{ 3,6,9,12\}\} (ii) \{ (x,y) : y>x+1, x=1,2, y=2,4,6\} (iii) \{ (x,y) : x+y =3, x, y \in \{ 0,1,2,3\}\}

More later,

Nalin Pithwa









You and your research ( You and your studies) : By Richard Hamming, AT and T, Bell Labs mathematician;

Although the title is grand (and quite aptly so)…the reality is that it can be applied to serious studies for IITJEE entrance, CMI entrance, highly competitive math olympiads, and also competitive coding contests…in fact, to various aspects of student life and various professional lifes…

Please read the whole article…apply it wholly or partially…modified or unmodified to your studies/research/profession…these are broad principles of success…


Tricky Trigonometry questions for IITJEE mains maths practice

Prove the following:

  1. \frac{\sin{A}}{1-\cos{A}} = \frac{1+\cos{A}-\sin{A}}{\sin{A}-1+\cos{A}}
  2. \frac{1+\sin{A}}{\cos{A}}=\frac{1+\sin{A}+\cos{A}}{\cos{A}+1-\sin{A}}
  3. \frac{\tan{A}}{\sec{A}-1}=\frac{\tan{A}+\sec{A}+1}{\sec{A}-1+\tan{A}}
  4. \frac{1+\csc{A}+ \cot{A}}{1+\csc{A}-\cot{A}} = \frac{\csc{A}+\cot{A}-1}{\cot{A}-\csc{A}+1}

Hint: Directly trying to prove LHS is RHS is difficult in all the above; or even trying to transform RHS to LHS is equally difficult; it is quite easier to prove the equivalent statement by taking cross-multiplication of the appropriate expressions. 🙂


Nalin Pithwa.

More questions on applications of derivatives: IITJEE mains maths tutorial

  1. Prove that the minimum value of (a+x)(b+x)/(c+x) for x>-c, is (\sqrt{a-c}+\sqrt{b-c})^{2}.
  2. A cylindrical vessel of volume 25\frac{1}{7} cubic meters, open at the top, is to be manufactured from a sheet of metal. Find the dimensions of the vessel so that the amount of metal used is the least possible.
  3. Assuming that the petrol burnt in driving a motor boat varies as the cube of its velocity, show that the most economical speed when going against a current of c kmph is 3c/2 kmph.
  4. Determine the altitude of a cone with the greatest possible volume inscribed in a sphere of radius R.
  5. Find the sides of a rectangle with the greatest possible perimeter inscribed in a semicircle of radius R.
  6. Prove that in an ellipse, the distance between the centre and any normal does not exceed the difference between the semi-axes.
  7. Determine the altitude of a cylinder of the greatest possible volume which can be inscribed in a sphere of radius R.
  8. Break up the number 8 into two parts such that the sum of their cubes is the least possible. (Use calculus techniques, not intelligent guessing).
  9. Find the greatest and least possible values of the following functions on the given interval: (i) y=x+2\sqrt{x} on [0,4]. (ii) y=\sqrt{100-x^{2}} on [-6,8] (iii) y=\frac{a^{2}}{x}+\frac{b^{2}}{1-x} on (0,1) with a>0 and b>0 (iv) y=2\tan{x}-\tan^{2}{x} on [0,\pi/2) (iv) y=\arctan{\frac{1-x}{1+x}} on [0,1].
  10. Prove the following inequalities: (in these subset of questions, you can try to use pure algebraic methods, apart from calculus techniques to derive alternate solutions): (i) 2\sqrt{x} >3-\frac{1}{x} for x>1 (ii) 2x\arctan{x} \geq \log{(1+x^{2})} (iii) \sin{x} < x-\frac{x^{3}}{6}+\frac{x^{5}}{120} for x>0. (iv) \log{(1+x)}>\frac{\arctan{x}}{1+x} for x>0 (iv) e^{x}+e^{-x} > 2+x^{2} for x \neq 0.
  11. Find the interval of monotonicity of the following functions: (i) y=x-e^{x} (ii) y=\log{(x+\sqrt{1+x^{2}})} (iii) y=x\sqrt{ax-x^{2}} (iv) y=\frac{10}{4x^{3}-9x^{2}+6x}
  12. Prove that if 0<x_{1}<x_{2}<\frac{\pi}{2}, then \frac{\tan{x_{2}}}{\tan{x_{1}}} > \frac{x_{2}}{x_{1}}
  13. On the graph of the function y=\frac{3}{\sqrt{2}}x\log{x} where x \in [e^{-1.5}, \infty), find the point M(x,y) such that the segment of the tangent to the graph of the function at the point intercepted between the point M and the y-axis, is the shortest.
  14. Prove that for 0 \leq p \leq 1 and for any positive a and b, the inequality (a+b)^{p} \leq a^{p}+b^{p} is valid.
  15. Given that f^{'}(x)>g^{'}(x) for all real x, and f(0)=g(0), prove that f(x)>g(x) for all x \in (0,\infty), and that f(x)<g(x) for all x \in (-\infty, 0).
  16. If f^{''}(x)<0 for all x \in (a,b), prove that f^{'}(x)=0 at most once in (a,b).
  17. Suppose that a function f has a continuous second derivative, f(0)=0, f^{'}(0)=0, f^{''}(x)<1 for all x. Show that |f(x)|<(1/2)x^{2} for all x.
  18. Show that x=\cos{x} has exactly one root in [0,\frac{\pi}{2}].
  19. Find a polynomial P(x) such that P^{'}(x)-3P(x)=4-5x+3x^{2}. Prove that there is only one solution.
  20. Find a function, if possible whose domain is [-3,3], f(-3)=f(3)=0, f(x) \neq 0 for all x \in (-3,3), f^{'}(-1)=f^{'}(1)=0, f^{'}(x)>0 if |x|>1 and f^{'}(x)<0, if |x|<1.
  21. Suppose that f is a continuous function on its domain [a,b] and f(a)=f(b). Prove that f has at least one critical point in (a,b).
  22. A right circular cone is inscribed in a sphere of radius R. Find the dimensions of the cone, if its volume is to be maximum.
  23. Estimate the change in volume of right circular cylinder of radius R and height h when the radius changes from r_{0} to r_{0}+dr and the height does not change.
  24. For what values of a, m and b does the function: f(x)=3, when x=0; f(x)=-x^{2}+3x+a, when 0<x<1; and f(x)=mx+b, when 1 \leq x \leq 2 satisfy the hypothesis of the Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem.
  25. Let f be differentiable for all x, and suppose that f(1)=1, and that f^{'}<0 on (-\infty, 1) and that f^{'}>0 on (1,\infty). Show that f(x) \geq 1 for all x.
  26. If b, c and d are constants, for what value of b will the curve y=x^{3}+bx^{2}+cx+d have a point of inflection at x=1?
  27. Let f(x)=1+4x-x^{2} \forall x \in \Re and g(x)= \left\{  \begin{array}{ll} max \{ f(x): x\leq t\leq x+3\} & 0 \leq x \leq 3\\ min (x+3) & 3 \leq x \leq 5 \end{array} \right. Find the critical points of g on [0,5]
  28. Find a point P on the curve x^{2}+4y^{2}-4=0 so that the area of the triangle formed by the tangent at P and the co-ordinate axes is minimum.
  29. Let f(x) = \left \{ \begin{array}{ll} -x^{3}+\frac{b^{3}-b^{2}+b-1}{b^{2}+3b+2} & 0 \leq x <1 \\ 2x-3 & 1 \leq x \leq 3 \end{array}\right. Find all possible real values of b such that f(x) has the smallest value at x=1.
  30. The circle x^{2}+y^{2}=1 cuts the x-axis at P and Q. Another circle with centre Q and variable radius intersects the first circle at R above the x-axis and line segment PQ at x. Find the maximum area of the triangle PQR.
  31. A straight line L with negative slope passes through the point (8,2) and cuts the positive co-ordinate axes at points P and Q. Find the absolute minimum value of OP+PQ, as L varies, where O is the origin.
  32. Determine the points of maxima and minima of the function f(x)=(1/8)\log{x}-bx+x^{2}, with x>0, where b \geq 0 is a constant.
  33. Let (h,k) be a fixed point, where h>0, k>0. A straight line passing through this point cuts the positive direction of the co-ordinate axes at points P and Q. Find the minimum area of the triangle OPQ, O being the origin.
  34. Let -1 \leq p \leq 1. Show that the equations 4x^{3}-3x-p=0 has a unique root in the interval [1/2,1] and identify it.
  35. Show that the following functions have at least one zero in the given interval: (i) f(x)=x^{4}+3x+1, with [-2,-1] (ii) f(x)=x^{3}+\frac{4}{x^{2}}+7 with (-\infty,0) (iii) r(\theta)=\theta + \sin^{2}({\theta}/3)-8, with (-\infty, \infty)
  36. Show that all points of the curve y^{2}=4a(x+\sin{(x+a)}) at which the tangent is parallel to axis of x lie on a parabola.
  37. Show that the function f defined by f(x)=|x|^{m}|x-1|^{n}, with x \in \Re has a maximum value \frac{m^{m}n^{n}}{(m+n)^{m+n}} with m,n >0.
  38. Show that the function f defined by f(x)=\sin^{m}(x)\sin(mx)+\cos^{m}(x)\cos(mx) with x \in \Re has a minimum value at x=\pi/4 which m=2 and a maximum at x=\pi/4 when m=4,6.
  39. If f^{''}(x)>0 for all x \in \Re, then show that f(\frac{x_{1}+x_{2}}{2}) \leq (1/2)[f(x_{1})+f(x_{2})] for all x_{1}, x_{2}.
  40. Prove that (e^{x}-1)>(1+x)\log(1+x), if x \in (0,\infty).

Happy problem solving ! Practice makes man perfect.


Nalin Pithwa.




Binomial Theorem: part 2: algebra for math olympiads or IITJEE maths

Binomial Theorem: Part I: A Primer for mathematical olympiads and IITJEE/RMO

Arithmetic Progressions: A Primer for mathematical olympiads and IITJEE mathematics

a gentle introduction…it reminds us that math is about detecting and discerning patterns…whether in numbers, symbols, shapes/figures, or even logical reasoning…regards, Nalin Pithwa.

Harmonic Progressions: A Primer for IITJEE maths and olympiad mathematics

Simultaneous Quadratic Equations: part III: IITJEE algebra