## Monthly Archives: November 2019

### A little portrait of a genius mathematician

Reference: A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar, the life of mathematical genius and Nobel Laureate, John Nash, A Touchstone Book, Published by Simon and Schuster.

…”Geniuses”, the mathematician Paul Halmos wrote, “are of two kinds: the ones who are just like all of us, but very much more so, and the ones who apparently have an extra human spark. We can all run, and some of us can run the mile in less than 4 minutes, but there is nothing that most of us can do that compares with the creation of the Great G-minor Fugue.” Nash’s genius was of that mysterious variety more often associated with music and art than with the oldest of all sciences. It wasn’t that his mind worked faster, that his memory was more retentive or that his power of concentration was greater. The flashes of intuition were non-rational. Like other great mathematical intuitionists — Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, Jules Henri Poincare, Srinivasa Ramanujan —- Nash saw the vision first constructing the laborious proofs long afterwards. But even after he would try to explain some astonishing result, the actual route he had taken remained a mystery to others who tried to follow his reasoning. Donald Newman, a mathematician who knew Nash at MIT in the 1950s, used to say about him that “everyone else would climb a peak by looking for a path somewhere on the mountains. Nash would climb another mountain altogether and from that distant peak would shine a searchlight back onto the first peak.”

Hats off,

Nalin Pithwa.

### A little portrait of Hermann Weyl

“A Proteus who transforms himself ceaselessly in order to elude the grip of his adversary, not becoming himself again until after the final victory.” Thus, Hermann Weyl (1885-1955) appeared to his eminent younger colleagues Claude Chevalley and Andre Weil. Surprising words to describe a mathematician, but apt for the amazing variety of shapes and forms in which Weyl’s extraordinary abilities revealed themselves, for “among all the mathematicians who began their working life in the twentieth century, Hermann Weyl was the one who made major contributions in the greatest number of different fields. He alone could stand comparison with the last great universal mathematicians of the nineteenth century, David Hilbert and Henri Poincare,” in the view of Freeman Dyson. “He was indeed not only a great mathematician but a great mathematical writer,” wrote another colleague.

https://www.amazon.in/Concept-Riemann-Surface-Hermann-Weyl/dp/160796239X/ref=sr_1_1_sspa?keywords=Hermann+Weyl&qid=1574319421&s=books&sr=1-1-spons&psc=1&spLa=ZW5jcnlwdGVkUXVhbGlmaWVyPUEySUUzOVBXM0ZHTzZPJmVuY3J5cHRlZElkPUEwODY2MzM5TUUzMzlCVVRYREpRJmVuY3J5cHRlZEFkSWQ9QTAwNjQ5MDJXUk03SkhIQk1HRE8md2lkZ2V0TmFtZT1zcF9hdGYmYWN0aW9uPWNsaWNrUmVkaXJlY3QmZG9Ob3RMb2dDbGljaz10cnVl

https://www.amazon.in/Continuum-Critical-Examination-Foundation-Mathematics/dp/0486679829/ref=sr_1_17?keywords=Hermann+Weyl&qid=1574319421&s=books&sr=1-17

Regards

Nalin Pithwa

### Theory of Quadratic Equations: Part III: Tutorial practice problems: IITJEE Mains and preRMO

Problem 1:

Find the condition that a quadratic function of x and y may be resolved into two linear factors. For instance, a general form of such a function would be : $ax^{2}+2hxy+by^{2}+2gx+2fy+c$.

Problem 2:

Find the condition that the equations $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ and $a^{'}x^{2}+b^{'}x+c^{'}=0$ may have a common root.

Using the above result, find the condition that the two quadratic functions $ax^{2}+bxy+cy^{2}$ and $a^{'}x^{2}+b^{'}xy+c^{'}y^{2}$ may have a common linear factor.

Problem 3:

For what values of m will the expression $y^{2}+2xy+2x+my-3$ be capable of resolution into two rational factors?

Problem 4:

Find the values of m which will make $2x^{2}+mxy+3y^{2}-5y-2$ equivalent to the product of two linear factors.

Problem 5:

Show that the expression $A(x^{2}-y^{2})-xy(B-C)$ always admits of two real linear factors.

Problem 6:

If the equations $x^{2}+px+q=0$ and $x^{2}+p^{'}x+q^{'}=0$ have a common root, show that it must be equal to $\frac{pq^{'}-p^{'}q}{q-q^{'}}$ or $\frac{q-q^{'}}{p^{'}-p}$.

Problem 7:

Find the condition that the expression $lx^{2}+mxy+ny^{2}$ and $l^{'}x^{2}+m^{'}xy+n^{'}y^{2}$ may have a common linear factor.

Problem 8:

If the expression $3x^{2}+2Pxy+2y^{2}+2ax-4y+1$ can be resolved into linear factors, prove that P must be be one of the roots of the equation $P^{2}+4aP+2a^{2}+6=0$.

Problem 9:

Find the condition that the expressions $ax^{2}+2hxy+by^{2}$ and $a^{'}x^{2}+2h^{'}xy+b^{'}y^{2}$ may be respectively divisible by factors of the form $y-mx$ and $my+x$.

Problem 10:

Prove that the equation $x^{2}-3xy+2y^{2}-2x-3y-35=0$ for every real value of x, there is a real value of y, and for every real value of y, there is a real value of x.

Problem 11:

If x and y are two real quantities connected by the equation $9x^{2}+2xy+y^{2}-92x-20y+244=0$, then will x lie between 3 and 6, and y between 1 and 10.

Problem 11:

If $(ax^{2}+bx+c)y+a^{'}x^{2}+b^{'}x+c^{'}=0$, find the condition that x may be a rational function of y.

More later,

Regards,

Nalin Pithwa.

### Theory of Quadratic Equations: part II: tutorial problems: IITJEE Mains, preRMO

Problem 1:

If x is a real number, prove that the rational function $\frac{x^{2}+2x-11}{2(x-3)}$ can have all numerical values except such as lie between 2 and 6. In other words, find the range of this rational function. (the domain of this rational function is all real numbers except $x=3$ quite obviously.

Problem 2:

For all real values of x, prove that the quadratic function $y=f(x)=ax^{2}+bx+c$ has the same sign as a, except when the roots of the quadratic equation $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ are real and unequal, and x has a value lying between them. This is a very useful famous classic result.

Remarks:

a) From your proof, you can conclude the following also: The expression $ax^{2}+bx+c$ will always have the same sign, whatever real value x may have, provided that $b^{2}-4ac$ is negative or zero; and if this condition is satisfied, the expression is positive, or negative accordingly as a is positive or negative.

b) From your proof, and using the above conclusion, you can also conclude the following: Conversely, in order that the expression $ax^{2}+bx+c$ may be always positive, $b^{2}-4ac$ must be negative or zero; and, a must be positive; and, in order that $ax^{2}+bx+c$ may be always negative, $b^{2}-4ac$ must be negative or zero, and a must be negative.

Further Remarks:

Please note that the function $y=f(x)=ax^{2}+bx+c$, where $a, b, c \in \Re$ and $a \neq 0$ is a parabola. The roots of this $y=f(x)=0$ are the points where the parabola cuts the y axis. Can you find the vertex of this parabola? Compare the graph of the elementary parabola $y=x^{2}$, with the graph of $y=ax^{2}$ where $a \neq 0$ and further with the graph of the general parabola $y=ax^{2}+bx+c$. Note you will just have to convert the expression $ax^{2}+bx+c$ to a perfect square form.

Problem 3:

Find the limits between which a must lie in order that the rational function $\frac{ax^{2}-7x+5}{5x^{2}-7x+a}$ may be real, if x is real.

Problem 4:

Determine the limits between which n must lie in order that the equation $2ax(ax+nc)+(n^{2}-2)c^{2}=0$ may have real roots.

Problem 5:

If x be real, prove that $\frac{x}{x^{2}-5x+9}$ must lie between 1 and $-\frac{1}{11}$.

Problem 6:

Prove that the range of the rational function $y=f(x)=\frac{x^{2}-x+1}{x^{2}+x+1}$ lies between 3 and $\frac{1}{3}$ for all real values of x.

Problem 7:

If $x \in \Re$, Prove that the rational function $y=f(x)=\frac{x^{2}+34x-71}{x^{2}+2x-7}$ can have no value between 5 and 9. In other words, prove that the range of the function is $(x <5)\bigcup(x>9)$.

Problem 8:

Find the equation whose roots are $\frac{\sqrt{a}}{\sqrt{a} \pm \sqrt(a-b)}$.

Problem 9:

If $\alpha, \beta$ are roots of the quadratic equation $x^{2}-px+q=0$, find the value of (a) $\alpha^{2}(\alpha^{2}\beta^{-1}-\beta)+\beta^{2}(\beta^{2}\alpha^{-1}-\alpha)$ (b) $(\alpha-p)^{-4}+(\beta-p)^{-4}$.

Problem 10:

If the roots of $lx^{2}+mx+n=0$ be in the ratio p:q, prove that $\sqrt{\frac{p}{q}}+\sqrt{\frac{q}{p}}+\sqrt{\frac{n}{l}}=0$

Problem 11:

If x be real, the expression $\frac{(x+m)^{2}-4mn}{2(x-n)}$ admits of all values except such as those that lie between 2n and 2m.

Problem 12:

If the roots of the equation $ax^{2}+2bx+c=0$ are $\alpha$ and $\beta$, and those of the equation $Ax^{2}+2Bx+C=0$ be $\alpha+\delta$ and $\beta+\delta$, prove that $\frac{b^{2}-ac}{a^{2}} = \frac{B^{2}-AC}{A^{2}}$.

Problem 13:

Prove that the rational function $y=f(x)=\frac{px^{2}+3x-4}{p+3x-4x^{2}}$ will be capable of all values when x is real, provided that p has any real value between 1 and 7. That is, under the conditions on p, we have to show that the given rational function has as its range the full real numbers. (Of course, the domain is real except those values of x for which the denominator is zero).

Problem 14:

Find the greatest value of $\frac{x+2}{2x^{2}+3x+6}$ for any real value of x. (Remarks: this is maxima-minima problem which can be solved with algebra only, calculus is not needed).

Problem 15:

Show that if x is real, the expression $(x^{2}-bc)(2x-b-c)^{-1}$ has no real value between b and a.

Problem 16:

If the roots of $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ be possible (real) and different, then the roots of $(a+c)(ax^{2}+2bx+c)=2(ac-b^{2})(x^{2}+1)$ will not be real, and vice-versa. Prove this.

Problem 17:

Prove that the rational function $y=f(x)=\frac{(ax-b)(dx-c)}{(bx-a)(cx-a)}$ will be capable of all real values when x is real, if $a^{2}-b^{2}$ and $c^{2}-a^{2}$ have the same sign.

Cheers,

Nalin Pithwa

### Theory of Quadratic Equations: Tutorial problems : Part I: IITJEE Mains, preRMO

I) Form the equations whose roots are:

a) $-\frac{4}{5}, \frac{3}{7}$ (b) $\frac{m}{n}, -\frac{n}{m}$ (c) $\frac{p-q}{p+q}, -\frac{p+q}{p-q}$ (d) $7 \pm 2\sqrt{5}$ (e) $-p \pm 2\sqrt{2q}$ (f) $-3 \pm 5i$ (g) $-a \pm ib$ (h) $\pm i(a-b)$ (i) $-3, \frac{2}{3}, \frac{1}{2}$ (j) $\frac{a}{2},0, -\frac{2}{a}$ (k) $2 \pm \sqrt{3}, 4$

II) Prove that the roots of the following equations are real:

i) $x^{2}-2ax+a^{2}-b^{2}-c^{2}=0$

ii) $(a-b+c)x^{2}+4(a-b)x+(a-b-c)=0$

III) If the equation $x^{2}-15-m(2x-8)=0$ has equal roots, find the values of m.

IV) For what values of m will the equation $x^{2}-2x(1+3m)+7(3+2m)=0$ have equal roots?

V) For what value of m will the equation $\frac{x^{2}-bx}{ax-c} = \frac{m-1}{m+1}$ have roots equal in magnitude but opposite in sign?

VI) Prove that the roots of the following equations are rational:

(i) $(a+c-b)x^{2}+2ax+(b+c-a)=0$

(ii) $abc^{2}x^{2}+3a^{2}cx+b^{2}ax-6a^{2}-ab+2b^{2}=0$

VII) If $\alpha, \beta$ are the roots of the equation $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$, find the values of

(i) $\frac{1}{\alpha^{2}} + \frac{1}{\beta^{2}}$

(ii) $\alpha^{4}\beta^{7}+\alpha^{7}\beta^{4}$

(iii) $(\frac{\alpha}{\beta}-\frac{\beta}{\alpha})^{2}$

VIII) Find the value of:

(a) $x^{3}+x^{2}-x+22$ when $x=1+2i$

(b) $x^{3}-3x^{2}-8x+16$ when $x=3+i$

(c) $x^{3}-ax^{2}+2a^{2}x+4a^{3}$ when $\frac{x}{a}=1-\sqrt{-3}$

IX) If $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are the roots of $x^{2}+px+q=0$ form the equation whose roots are $(\alpha-\beta)^{2}$ and $(\alpha+\beta)^{2}$/

X) Prove that the roots of $(x-a)(x-b)=k^{2}$ are always real.

XI) If $\alpha_{1}, \alpha_{2}$ are the roots of $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$, find the value of (i) $(ax_{1}+b)^{-2}+(ax_{2}+b)^{-2}$ (ii) $(ax_{1}+b)^{-3}+(ax_{2}+b)^{-3}$

XII) Find the condition that one root of $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ shall be n times the other.

XIII) If $\alpha, \beta$ are the roots of $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ form the equation whose roots are $\alpha^{2}+\beta^{2}$ and $\alpha^{-2}+\beta^{-2}$.

XIV) Form the equation whose roots are the squares of the sum and of the differences of the roots of $2x^{2}+2(m+n)x+m^{2}+n^{2}=0$.

XV) Discuss the signs of the roots of the equation $px^{2}+qx+r=0$

XVI) If a, b and c are odd integers, prove that the roots of the equation $ax^{2}+bx+c=0$ cannot be rational numbers.

XVII) Given that the equation $x^{4}+px^{3}+qx^{2}+rx+s=0$ has four real positive roots, prove that (a) $pr-16s \geq 0$ (b) $q^{2}-36s \geq 0$, where equality holds, in each case, if and only if the roots are equal.

XVIII) Let $p(x)=x^{2}+ax+b$ be a quadratic polynomial in which a and b are integers. Given any integer n, show that there is an integer M such that $p(n)p(n+1)=p(M)$.

Cheers,

Nalin Pithwa.